Gripen brasileiro faz voo inaugural na Suécia

Claudia Wallin, correspondente da RFI em Estocolmo

Cinco anos após o contrato para a compra pelo Brasil de 36 caças supersônicos do modelo sueco Gripen, foi realizado nesta segunda-feira em Linköping, na Suécia, o voo inaugural do primeiro Gripen brasileiro – resultado da parceria entre a fabricante sueca Saab e a brasileira Embraer.

A cerimônia oficial de entrega do Gripen brasileiro para o início da campanha de testes em voo será feita no próximo dia 10 de setembro na sede da Saab em Linköping, com a presença de autoridades brasileiras e suecas.

“Este marco é um legado para a grande parceria entre a Suécia e o Brasil”, disse Håkan Buskhe, Presidente e CEO da Saab.

A principal diferença em relação às aeronaves de teste anteriores é que o primeiro Gripen brasileiro dispõe de um cockpit com layout totalmente novo, com a tela panorâmica Wide Area Display (WAD), dois pequenos Head Down Displays(sHDD) e um novo Head Up Display (HUD). Outra diferença é um moderno sistema de comando de voo (do inglês flight control system, FCS), além de pequenas modificações no hardware e no software.

Testes de qualidade

Durante o voo inaugural, que teve duração de 65 minutos, foram conduzidos testes de manobrabilidade e qualidade de voo em diferentes altitudes e velocidades.

“Como piloto, foi uma grande honra voar o primeiro Gripen E Brasileiro, pois sei o quanto isto representa para a Força Aérea Brasileira, a Saab e nossos parceiros brasileiros. O voo foi tranquilo e a aeronave se comportou exatamente como ensaiamos nas bancadas de testes e nos simuladores. Esta também foi a primeira vez que voamos com o Wide Area Display no cockpit e estou feliz em dizer que minhas expectativas foram atendidas”, disse o piloto de testes da Saab, Richard Ljungberg.

O primeiro caça brasileiro a abrir a campanha de testes é a versão monoposto (para um piloto) da aeronave, o Gripen E. Brasil e Suécia também trabalham juntos para projetar um caça de dois assentos, o Gripen F – um modelo maior, mais pesado e com diversas alterações nos sistemas de aviação e na aerodinâmica do Gripen NG sueco original, que está sendo desenvolvido especialmente para a FAB. O modelo biposto vai permitir que um segundo piloto atue como coordenador de outras aeronaves em missões específicas, e também será usado para treinamento de pilotos.

Pilotos brasileiros vão treinar na Suécia

A partir do próximo ano, pilotos brasileiros farão o treinamento na Suécia. Serão duas aeronaves de teste 100% brasileiras: uma monoposto e outra biposto. Os testes efetuados nos demais aviões de teste do Gripen E (chamados 37-8, 37-9 e 37-10) também já certificaram os sistemas táticos, como o sensor IRST (Infra Red Search and Track) e o radar AESA.

A versão brasileira do Gripen conta com modernos sistemas embarcados, radar de última geração e capacidade para empregar armamentos de fabricação nacional.

Com 14,1 metros de comprimento e 8,6 metros de largura, o caça multiemprego é uma aeronave de última geração que atinge mais de duas vezes a velocidade do som, e suporta até nove vezes a força da gravidade durante manobras.

O cockpit é cem por cento digital, e com suas armas teleguiadas o caça pode atacar e destruir alvos aéreos, marítimos e terrestres, 24 horas por dia, em qualquer condição meteorológica. A aeronave é capaz de levar até 6.5 toneladas de armamentos, incluindo mísseis de médio e longo alcance e bombas guiadas a laser.

O primeiro lote do total de 36 caças encomendados vai ser entregue à FAB a partir de 2021. Em 2024, segundo o cronograma, começam a ser entregues os aviões produzidos no Brasil. Todos ficarão sediados em Anápolis, no interior de Goiás, podendo operar a partir de pistas de pouso espalhadas em todo o país.

De acordo com o contrato assinado em 2014, o Brasil receberá 28 caças da versão monoposto, para um piloto (os chamados Gripen E), e oito unidades do modelo de dois assentos (Gripen F).

Os 36 caças serão produzidos de três formas: nesta primeira etapa, parte das aeronaves – que na FAB serão denominadas de F-39 E/F – estão sendo desenvolvidas integralmente na Suécia pela Saab, com acompanhamento de técnicos e engenheiros brasileiros. Em uma segunda fase, os brasileiros montarão o caça inicialmente na Suécia, com o apoio dos suecos. Na fase final, os jatos serão construídos em solo brasileiro, com suporte da Saab.

Transferência de tecnologia

Esta integração faz parte da ampla transferência de tecnologia prevista em contrato, que irá capacitar a indústria aeroespacial brasileira a desenvolver e produzir caças supersônicos no Brasil.

No total,15 aeronaves vão ser fabricadas no Brasil, incluindo as oito unidades de dois lugares. A produção final será feita no Centro de Projetos e Desenvolvimento do Gripen (GDDN), criado em 2016 e situado no complexo industrial da Embraer em Gavião Peixoto, no interior paulista.

Ao longo do programa, 350 engenheiros da Embraer e de outras empresas brasileiras que atuam no desenvolvimento do Gripen E/F serão treinados na Suécia. Entre as outras parceiras brasileiras estão a AEL, que desenvolveu a tela de controle do cockpit, e a Akaer, responsável pelo projeto da nova fuselagem traseira do avião.

Até o momento,165 brasileiros já passaram pelo treinamento e regressaram ao Brasil. A maior parte deles trabalha junto a engenheiros suecos no GDDN de Gavião Peixoto, que é o pólo da transferência da tecnologia da Saab para os parceiros brasileiros. É ali que o Gripen F, a versão de dois lugares do Gripen, está sendo desenvolvido.

O Gripen brasileiro também será um produto de exportação – tanto a Saab como a Embraer já tentam negociar a venda do modelo com potenciais compradores de outros países. O Gripen foi escolhido pelo governo brasileiro como o novo caça da FAB em 18 de dezembro de 2013, após vencer uma concorrência com jatos da França e dos Estados Unidos no âmbito do programa FX-2. O contrato para a compra dos caças, no valor de US$ 5,4 bilhões, foi assinado em outubro de 2014.

26 de Agosto de 2019

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