Suecos usam microchip implantado na mão como bilhete de trem

A Vida na Suécia

Claudia Wallin, para a Rádio França Internacional

Parece ficção científica, mas já é realidade: a empresa estatal de trens da Suécia, SJ, acaba de se tornar a primeira rede ferroviária do mundo a oferecer aos passageiros, em caráter experimental, a opção de usar implantes de microchip sob a pele da mão para validar seus bilhetes. Em vez de mostrar ao cobrador do trem o bilhete a ser escaneado, basta que o usuário estenda a própria mão.

A cena, estranhamente futurista, tem causado surpresa nos vagões da SJ. No universo inicial do experimento, estão os cerca de dois mil suecos que já possuem um implante de microchip no corpo – uma tecnologia que pode cumprir diferentes funções, e que vem ganhando cada vez mais adeptos na Suécia.

Trata-se de uma legião de “super-humanos” que decidiram incrustrar a tecnologia no próprio corpo para executar, com um simples aceno de mão, tarefas como abrir portas, acionar impressoras ou comprar produtos em máquinas de auto-atendimento.

“Este foi na verdade um pedido que recebemos de alguns de nossos usuários, que já tinham um microchip implantado na mão para fazer coisas como abrir as portas de casa automaticamente. Eles perguntaram, ‘podemos usar o mesmo microchip para viajar nos trens?’ Como já detínhamos a tecnologia digital necessária, uma vez que a SJ é uma das empresas mais digitalizadas da Suécia, fomos capazes de implementar o processo de forma rápida”, disse Stephan Ray, executivo da SJ, em entrevista à RFI.

O plano da estatal sueca é conduzir o experimento até o fim do ano, antes de adotar o microchip de forma definitiva.

“Vamos coletar informações junto a nossos usuários, a fim de estabelecer se este é um serviço que eles realmente desejam. Vamos também conversar com as tripulações dos trens, para determinar se a validação do bilhete via microchip é um processo que pode agilizar ou não o processo de trabalho”, diz Ray.

“Mas em princípio, a revolução já começou”, acrescenta ele.

A tecnologia não é nova: há tempos o microchip vem sendo utilizado para a identificação de animais, como cães e gatos.

O implante do experimento sueco funciona por meio do sistema NFC (Near Field Communication), uma tecnologia de comunicação de curto alcance que permite a troca de informações entre dispositivos sem a necessidade de cabos ou fios, e que já é usada também em smartphones e cartões de crédito. Nos trens, o cobrador posiciona o dispositivo de leitura a poucos centímetros da mão do passageiro, e os dados do bilhete, contidos no microchip, são então transmitidos através de ondas eletromagnéticas.

A introdução do microchip nas viagens da SJ é uma parceria da estatal de trens sueca com o Epicenter – um centro de inovação tecnológica situado no centro de Estocolmo, e onde cerca de 150 de seus dois mil membros e funcionários já circulam com microchips implantados na mão para abrir portas, ou simplesmente comprar um café nas máquinas de auto-atendimento.

Na rotina quase distópica do Epicenter, as injeções para o implante de microchips na mão se tornaram tão populares que os funcionários chegam a organizar festas para os candidatos a “ciborgue”.

O processo dura poucos segundos: um pouco maior do que um grão de arroz, o microchip é implantado através de uma injeção na área entre os dedos polegar e indicador. A implantação do chip custa 1,5 mil coroas suecas (cerca de 560 reais).

“Esta tecnologia vai representar uma evolução radical”, diz à RFI o presidente e co-fundador do Epicenter, Patrick Mesterton.

“Hoje, um indivíduo precisa carregar uma série de coisas, como chaves, cartões de crédito, o cartão da academia, o cartão do metrô. O que o implante de microchip proporciona é uma funcionalidade exponencial: no futuro, todos esses itens vão poder ser substituídos por um único microchip implantado sob a pele, que pode desempenhar múltiplas funções. Como por exemplo abrir portas, pagar a conta do supermercado ou validar bilhetes de trem – tudo com um simples aceno de mão. A tecnologia para isto já existe”, acrescenta Patrick, que foi o primeiro a implantar o microchip em sua mão no Epicenter.

As instalações do Epicenter têm 12 mil metros quadrados – “então temos muitas portas para abrir”, brinca Mesterton:

“É claro que a decisão de inserir um chip no próprio corpo é um grande passo. Mas por outro lado, há tempos as pessoas já implantam dispositivos no corpo, como por exemplo o marcapasso. Que é, afinal, algo muito mais sério do que implantar um pequeno chip. E gostaria de salientar que a intervenção para a inserção do microchip, no Epicenter, é inteiramente voluntária. Ninguém está obrigado a fazer o implante”, ele pontua.

Para alguns, este é um natural passo seguinte na evolução tecnológica. Já na visão de outros, implantar um microchip no próprio corpo pode abrir as portas para um futuro perturbador, em um mundo habitado por “ciborgues” e ameaçado pela perda das liberdades individuais.

Stephan Ray, da estatal sueca SJ, garante que a tecnologia adotada no projeto não representa uma ameaça à privacidade dos passageiros:

“A única informação que o passageiro precisa ter no microchip, para viajar em nossos trens, é seu número de usuário em nosso sistema. O implante não contém nenhum outro dado do usuário, como informações pessoais, e nem emite sinais que permitam localizá-lo”, enfatiza o executivo.

A estatal sueca admite que o uso do microchip é um tema polêmico.

“Não temos, porém, recebido críticas”, diz Ray. “Principalmente por deixarmos claro que a SJ não vende, e nem promove o uso dos microchips. Estamos apenas oferecendo a nossos usuários a possibilidade de usá-los para viajar em nossos trens, caso assim desejem”.

Como toda nova tecnologia, o implante de microchip ainda é visto por muitos com certo ceticismo – e até mesmo medo.

“Quando as pessoas começarem a entender como essa tecnologia funciona, no entanto, elas poderão perceber que ela também é uma coisa mágica. E não há nada a temer. Quem não gostar do microchip, pode simplesmente removê-lo”, argumenta Patrick Mesterton, do Epicenter.

Lina Edström, analista de sistemas da estatal sueca de trens, diz que é preciso satisfazer a demanda dos muitos early adopters (primeiros a adotar novas tecnologias) da Suécia, que vêem o microchip como uma “opção sensacional”:

“Não creio que seja possível evitar esta evolução”, ela diz.

Mas quanto mais sofisticados os microchips vierem a ser, maiores poderão se tornar os dilemas éticos.

2 de Julho de 2017

Conheça o livro “Um País Sem Excelências e Mordomias”

 

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